Note on potency of chemical carcinogens.

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Published by Royal Society of Chemistry. Environment, Health and Safety Committee .

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Other titlesPotency of chemical carcinogens.
ContributionsRoyal Society of Chemistry. Environment, Health and Safety Committee.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL20897304M

Download Note on potency of chemical carcinogens.

The level of risk associated with a carcinogenic agent depends on both the potency of the agent and the level of exposure to it. Carcinogenic potency can be estimated, fairly crudely, using clinical and epidemiologic data on humans or toxicologic data derived from animal cancer tests.

Potency of chemical carcinogens varies over a wide range. To assess relative potency, the committee compiled and analyzed data on over carcinogens—65 of which were naturally occurring. The data set included agents identified by IARC as having sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans or animals, or by the NTP as known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens.

Variation in Carcinogen Potency. The CPDB includes data on potent chemical carcinogens such as 2,3,7,8-tetraclorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), as well as less potent compounds such as DDT.

Gold et al. () noted that the TD 50 value in the CPDB for chemicals inducing tumors in rats varied by seven orders of magnitude or 10 million-fold.

avoid exposure to carcinogens and other harmful chemicals of women who are pregnant, or may become pregnant. This is because the foetus is at high risk from harmful chemicals ingested by the mother.

This document is particularly concerned with the many different types of chemical carcinogens, their potency as carcinogens, the wide differences.

Key words: cancer stages,carcinogenesis evaluation, chemical carcinogens, chemical carcinogenesis. INTRODUCTION Public opinion considers cancer to be an increasingly threatening disease, affecting people of all ages. After cardiovascular diseases, it is the second cause of death amongst the global population (HuffWeisburger.

Most chemical carcinogens are mutagens 2. Most carcinogens and mutagens are strong electrophilic reactants. 3 Ionizing or ultraviolet radiation and most chemical carcinogens cause3.

Ionizing or ultraviolet radiation and most chemical carcinogens cause lesions in DNA. Defects in DNA repair capacity are associated with a high risk of cancer. above, AFB1 was designated as a known human carcinogen (group 1) by IARC in [5].

Parenthetically, it is note-worthy that this designation was assigned in the absence of information about the prevalence of HBV infection in the populations studied.

Chemical Carcinogen in Animals Suspect Human Carcinogen/Disease Linkage Determine Relation of. In this study, we investigated the endogenous formation of the tobacco-specific oral and esophageal carcinogen N′-nitrosonornicotine Note on potency of chemical carcinogens. book in e-cigarette users.

Salivary NNN, nornicotine, and nicotine as well as urinary tobacco biomarkers, including total NNN, were analyzed in 20 e-cigarette users, 20 smokers, and 19 nonsmokers. Cancer is often perceived as largely due to inherited defective genes.

However, the biggest cause of human cancer is exposure to chemicals and Note on potency of chemical carcinogens. book, the biggest contributors to the burden of human cancer (estimated to be about 90% of all cancers) are chemicals contained within tobacco smoke, the diet and the environment.

Chemical carcinogenesis is. Note: Scientific Review Panel unit risk 'reasonable estimate' = E-4(ug/m3) Note: CASRNs fitting the pattern 0-##-0 or 1-##-0 are generated for electronic database purposes only. Alphabetically-sorted List — KNOWN AND SUSPECTED HUMAN CARCINOGENS Carcinogens Reference List Page 1 of Regulatory agencies currently rely on rodent carcinogenicity bioassay data to predict whether or not a given chemical poses a carcinogenic threat to humans.

We argue that it is always more useful to know a chemical's carcinogenic potency (with confidence limits) than to be able to say only qualitatively that it has been found to be a carcinogen.

Potency considerations (1) Response-dependent ranking of animal carcinogens (2) Dose-dependent ranking of animal carcinogens, TD50 (3) Percentage of human exposure dose/rodent potency dose (HERP) 4. Mechanistic considerations an extensive data base (Carcinogenic Potency Database), the range of carcinogenic potency among chemicals was shown to be over 10 million-fold (Gold et.

Examples of indirect-acting carcinogens include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, alkyl nitrosamines, or aflatoxin B1. Most chemical carcinogens require metabolic activation to elicit a tumorigenic response.

Epigenetic carcinogens are carcinogens that do. The estimated maximum tolerated dose (EMTD) is based on a 90 day or other subchronic test, and its determination involves scientific judgment applied to the information available at the end of the test period.

How well the EMTD approximates the true MTD can be evaluated only after the bioassay. The highest dose tested HDT in a long-term rodent bioassay is usually used as the EMTD. Suspected carcinogens are classified in Category 3 and are assigned a MAK value only if neither the substance nor any of its metabolites is genotoxic.

In the Categories 4 and 5 are classified substances for which the available data are sufficient for assessment of the carcinogenic potency.

Handbook of Carcinogenic Potency and Genotoxicity Databases by Lois Swirsky Gold,available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Such indices provide a quantitative measure of carcinogenic potential, which may be used to rank the relative potency of different carcinogens.

A widely used measure of potency is the TD 50 proposed by Peto et al. REGULATORY TOXICOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY 3, () The Ranking of Chemicals for Carcinogenic Potency' JEFFREY C.

THEISS School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas Received May 9, A relatively new approach to assessing the carcinogenic hazard that chemicals pose to man involves the development of criteria by which carcinogens.

Chemical Agents and Related Occupations IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Volume F. IARC. ***This book was highly commended in the Public Health category of the British Medical Association's annual Medical Book Competition.*** Contents and Note.

Chemical carcinogen Polycyclic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke. Mechanism of chemical carcinogens. HIghly reactive electrophiles that remove electrons from DNA, RNA or proteins How does the promotion step in chemical carcinogenesis affect cells. Induces tumor proliferation in initiated cells.

Is the promotion phase irreversible or reversible. agent depends on both the potency of the agent and the level of exposure to it. Carcinogenic potency can be estimated, fairly crudely, using clinical and epidemiologic data on humans or toxicologic data derived from animal cancer tests.

Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling45 (4), DOI: /cin. Romualdo Benigni. Structure−Activity Relationship Studies of Chemical Mutagens and Carcinogens: Mechanistic Investigations and Prediction Approaches. Chemical Reviews(5), DOI: /cry.

Most carcinogens, singly or in combination, produce Carcinogen, any of a number of agents that can cause cancer in humans. They can be divided into three major categories: chemical carcinogens (including those from biological sources), physical carcinogens, and oncogenic (cancer-causing) viruses.

The methodology described in the EU Guidance for the derivation of specific concentration limits for carcinogens allows the derivation of carcinogen potency dose descriptors and the subsequent allocation of the chemical to high, medium or low potency groups.

Potency is defined in the EU Guidance as the magnitude, with respect to dose, of the. ISBN: OCLC Number: Description: pages: illustrations ; 29 cm: Contents: Ch. Carcinogenic potency database / Lois Swirsky Gold [and others] --Ch. y of carcinogenic potency database by target organ / Lois Swirsky Gold, Neela B.

Manley, and Thomas H. Slone --Ch. y of carcinogenic potency database by chemical / Lois Swirsky Gold, Thomas. Depending on the potential uses of the chemical, it is often considered prudent to confirm presumptive non-carcinogens, but to be willing to discard a mutagenic chemical that may not be carcinogenic, or label the chemical as a potential carcinogen in the absence of further testing.

Today, about different chemical compounds and mixtures are known or anticipated to be human carcinogens. The great majority of human chemical carcinogens require metabolic activation to elicit. Chemical Research in Toxicology9 (1), DOI: /tx Masato Koreeda, Ramesh Gopalaswamy.

Regio- and Stereocontrolled Synthesis of the Bay-Region anti-Diol Epoxide Metabolites of the Potent Carcinogens Benzo[a]pyrene and 7,Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Carcinogen chemistry.

Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the ambident carbocationic nature of iminium ions and its relevance to the aminoalkylating ability of related chemical carcinogens.

Structure−Activity Relationship Studies of Chemical Mutagens and Carcinogens: Mechanistic Investigations and Prediction Approaches. Chemical Reviews(5), DOI: /cry. B2, probable human carcinogen. Please Note: The main source of information for this fact sheet is EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) (7), which contains information on the carcinogenic effects of 1,4-dioxane including the unit cancer risk for oral exposure.

@article{osti_, title = {Ranking of PAH (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) carcinogenic potencies}, author = {Glass, L R and Easterly, C E}, abstractNote = {The proposed framework for the analysis of tumorigenicity data permits an independence from statistical models and simultaneously allows for a hierarchal approach to estimates of carcinogenic potency.

The chemical formula for N-nitrosomorpholine is C 4 H 8 N 2 O 2, and the molecular weight is g/mol. (3) Note: There are very few health numbers or regulatory/advisory numbers for N-nitrosomorpholine; thus, a graph has not been prepared for this compound.

The health information cited in this fact sheet was obtained in December It was found for 34 carcinogens studied which covered a potency range of 10, that the median of the ratio LED/T25 was equal to and that for 90% of the substances the numerical value of. Chemical is associated (positive) or is not asso-ciated (negative) with an increased incidence of cancer Chemical may be hazardous.

That deter-mination requires further testing. Chemical is a poten-tial carcinogen. Chemical is recognized as a carcinogen in that species and as a poten-tial human carcinogen. Chemical is recognized as a human. Created the Ames test, an assay to determine if a chemical is mutagenic.

Demonstrated that most carcinogens are mutagens. Built a comprehensive database of carcinogen potency. Showed that many nutrient deficiencies cause DNA damage and proposed the triage theory as a mechanism by which this occurs.

-potency varies widely from weak or noncarcinogenic molecules to very potent carcinogens. -benzo[a]pyrene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, isolated from coal tar and first purified chemical carcinogens of any kind to be identified -produced by combustion and proalaysis of meats.

Mechanisms and Toxicity of Chemical Carcinogens and Mutagens (Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology Vol 12): Medicine & Health Science Books @ Potency of the carcinogen (some carcinogens cause cancer if there is exposure to even a very small amount, while others may require intense exposure over many years).

Individual susceptibility (e.g., some people may be more susceptible to developing cancer due to their genetic make-up). Current Intelligence Bulletin NIOSH Chemical Carcinogen Policy. NIOSH published a final document entitled “Current Intelligence Bulletin NIOSH Chemical Carcinogen Policy” on Decem Underlying this policy is the recognition that there is no safe level of exposure to a carcinogen, and therefore that reduction of worker exposure to chemical carcinogens as much as .Induction of phase 2 detoxication enzymes [e.g., glutathione transferases, epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H: quinone reductase, and glucuronosyltransferases] is a powerful strategy for achieving protection against carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and other forms of toxicity of electrophiles and reactive forms of oxygen.

Since consumption of large quantities of fruit and vegetables is associated with a.carcinogenic potency: The incremental excess cancer risk per unit of exposure to a chemical, which is expressed in µg/L for water, mg/kg/day for food and µg/m3 for air. The carcinogenic potency can be estimated by calculating Q1.

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